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The Factor 2 in Fundamental Physics

Peter Rowlands


A brief history is given of the factor 2, starting in the most elementary considerations of geometry and the kinematics of uniform acceleration, and moving to relativity, quantum mechanics and particle physics. The basic argument is that in all the significant cases in which the factor 2 or ½ occurs in fundamental physics, whether classical, quantum or relativistic, the same physical operation is taking place.

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